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Sector Policy/Strategy
WASH Bottleneck Analysis Tool

WASH Bottleneck Analysis Tool (WASH BAT)

Year of publication:
WASH BAT has been designed as a sector tool for use by governments and development partners for WASH sector strengthening. It enables a systematic identification of factors (or “bottlenecks”) that prevent achievement of sustainable service delivery within national or subnational WASH targets and helps stakeholders to define activities aimed at removing the root causes of these bottlenecks.

Building block(s)
Sector Policy/Strategy
Planning Monitoring and Review
Sector Financing
Crosscutting Areas
Both urban and rural
Organization responsible for the tool
UNICEF - United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
Detailed description of Tool

WASH BAT is a sector diagnostic/analysis and monitoring tool developed conceived by UNICEF and developed by Community Systems Foundation in 2011. It is available in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese.

The overall aim of the Bottleneck Analysis Tool is to elevate the efficiency of WASH sector resources to achieve more sustainable and equitable outcomes. This is achieved through facilitating dialogues between sector financiers and by offering practical proposals to remove barriers and increase sector development.

The tool has been designed to cater to different types of user. The principal users of the tool are expected to be line ministries responsible for water, sanitation and hygiene. The application of the tool is expected to be a collaborative effort involving various sector stakeholders and external partners. In a step-by-step approach, the tool assists a user to:

  • Assess the key enabling factors to be developed for the WASH sector;
  • Identify bottlenecks that restrict sector progress;
  • Propose (sequenced) activities for the removal of bottlenecks;
  • Estimate resource requirements and costs of bottleneck removal;
  • Propose priorities for utilization of additional funds;
  • and Link bottleneck removal to sector and broader development objectives.

The user will do this through the following sections:

  • Scope of Analysis
  • Participant List
  • Building Blocks
  • Awards, Bottlenecks and Causes
  • Activity for Bottleneck Removal
  • Costing Intervention
  • Fund Allocation
  • Responsibility
  • Reports


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