Two major global monitoring instruments – the GLAAS and the JMP – provide key information at the global level.
The UN Water Global Assessment and Analysis of Sanitation and Water (GLAAS), provides information about the inputs to the sanitation and water sector, such as money and human resources, and sheds light on institutional bottlenecks. The JMP tracks progress on numbers of people served in each country, broken down by rural and urban populations.
Together, these reports provide a picture of where there are gaps that require attention. This information complements national-level data and is available to developing-country governments when they design commitments to table at the HLM. Having multiple sources of information assists developing countries to design commitments that address the needs in their countries, and supports donors to ensure their assistance is well-targeted.
SWA aims to support access to these data and to encourage decision-makers to use them.
In 1990, following the World Summit for Children, WHO and UNICEF came together and began to track progress on water and sanitation, calling themselves the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). The JMP bases its data on household surveys, carried out by the National Bureau of Statistics in each country, supported by international agencies.
The JMP issues regular progress reports on global coverage; until recently these were every two years, but in 2013 the JMP started issuing annual updates. The JMP, affiliated with UN-Water, presents the results of the global monitoring of progress towards MDG 7, target C: ‘to halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking-water and basic sanitation’. Monitoring draws on data from household surveys and censuses, carried out by national statistics bureaux in accordance with international criteria.
In 2000, the JMP began to track the MDG targets, and it is expected that the JMP will continue to track new post-2015 targets. The JMP has played a role in proposing new targets and indicators for WASH for the post-2015 agenda.
A host of initiatives at national level provide information on sanitation and water service delivery including:
• National Information Management Systems
• Joint Sector Reviews
• Annual performance reviews
Some global and national commitments made at the 2012 High-Level Meeting relate to improving monitoring and information systems, therefore increasing evidence-based decision making.